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Cranes represent machines that are used for both lifting and lowering loads, as well as moving them horizontally. Usually they are equipped with the lifting rope, ropes made of wires, sheaves and chains.Their main purpose is to lift heavy cargo or materials, and to transport them to another location. They can be equipped with one or more engines, in order to achieve a mechanical advantage so that they can move things that are impossible to be relocated by hand or other means of load transport. These machines are mostly used in harbors, to load or unload cargo for the transport industry, on construction sites, for the relocation of building materials, and for assembling heavy equipment in the manufacturing industry.

History of cranes

The first cranes that were ever used in the history of mankind, were used for construction in the ancient Greece. For powering the cranes, Greeks have used slaves, or horses and donkeys.They were used for the construction of large buildings. Bigger cranes were developed later in the human history, Larger cranes were later developed, and they allowed heavier loads to be lifted.Harbor cranes appeared at the end of the Middle Ages, and they were used for loading and unloading ships as well as for the construction of ships. In order to ensure the cranes strength and stability,most of the cranes were built into stone towers. The first cranes were made of wood, but as the industrial revolution began and evolved, people started using iron and steel when building cranes.

Powering of cranes

Since the beginning of the use of cranes, the power for lifting loads came from men and animals, even though water and wind mills were already invented then, and they could have been used for powering the cranes.With the invention of steam engines, people started using steam engines to power the cranes. The first ever steam crane was built at the end of the 18th century, and that type of cranes remained in use until the end of the 20th century. With the appearance of internal combustion engines and electric motors as well as hydraulic systems, cranes became modernized, and now they allow much heavier cargo to be lifted,as well as the much bigger height where the cargo can be lifted.

Types of cranes

There are a large number of varieties and forms of cranes today, and each type is made for a specific type of use. For example, in workshops, people use the small jib cranes,while in the construction of skyscrapers, people use the tall tower cranes, and even mini-cranes when working in tight spaces is involved in the construction. When it comes to building massive oil rigs, there are the huge floating cranes, which can also be used for salvaging sunken ships.
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